Upgrading from Debian 11 to Debian 12 yields an exception from which mariadb doesn't seem to recover from. This can reproduced with a clean installation and no data inserted whatsoever. It seems as if it has to do something with the InnoDB structure that was generated with version 10.5.19. I tested this with both Debian 11 (5.10.0.-23) and Debian 12 (6.1.0-9) kernels with both failing.
The only fix for this seems to be to delete /var/lib/mysql in its entirety and regenerate all of the data structures by starting up mariadb with an empty dir. From this point on the exception is gone and everything works as expected.
I attached the error log that comes up when /usr/sbin/mariadbd is started with version 10.11.3 with data generated from 10.5.19.