This was reproduced while trying to reproduce an older issue
Some InnoDB B-tree cursor refactoring in
MDEV-30400 turns out to be unsafe, resulting in InnoDB tables being flagged as corrupted. This occurs also on PRIMARY KEY indexes (clustered indexes), not only on secondary index pages.
The root cause seems to be that some operations are accessing the buffer page frame contents while only holding a buffer-fix on the page, not a page latch. It could be the case that the page is being read into the buffer pool, or it is being decrypted or decompressed. In some core dumps of such failures (with additional instrumentation to essentially revert
MDEV-13542), the corruption condition would no longer hold.