The InnoDB redo log mostly uses physical addressing (byte offsets within a page). It is mostly record insert operations that use a combination of logical and physical addressing (addressing the insert position both by ‘heap number’ and byte offset).
If a page that is read during redo log apply is older than what the redo log expects (if some page writes were missed for any reason), then most redo log apply operations would happily corrupt the page further. The corruption might sometimes be caught when an insert operation is being applied.
We should introduce an option to generate new MLOG_CHECKPOINT records at mtr_t::commit(). For every page that was modified by the mini-transaction, we would compute and write to the log a CRC-32C checksum of the uncompressed and unencrypted page contents. This is not the same as the page checksum in data files. This checksum should skip the FIL_PAGE_LSN field on the page, because that field would not be updated until page flushing takes place.
When ‘applying’ a MLOG_CHECKPOINT record, recovery (or mariabackup --prepare) would compute the corresponding checksum of the page and compare it to the one that is written to the log record.