Currently, before Mysql 5.7, there was no way to get information from a temporary table (session table) using the information_schema. Now with Mysql 5.7 there is a new table named 'INNODB_TEMP_TABLE_INFO'.
According to documentation: https://mariadb.com/kb/en/mariadb/information-schema-temp_tables_info-table/
There was a table names 'TEMP_TABLES_INFO' which was introduced in 10.2.2 but removed in 10.2.4. I think maybe you're thinking to implement another solution which can cover all the needs.
The example shows how to use 'INNODB_TEMP_TABLE_INFO' but it doesn't exist
BTW that mysql's implementation is very limited, there no way you can query against temporary tables fields using a SELECT statement.