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  1. MariaDB Server
  2. MDEV-31496

Make optimizer handle UCASE(varchar_col)=...




      This is based on a customer case.

      The issue

      The customer query has a (repeating) fragment

      SELECT ...
        t1, t2
        UCASE(t1.key_column)= UCASE(t2.column) AND ...

      Both t1.key_column and t2.column use collation utf8mb3_general_ci.

      There is an index on t1.key_column, and the above condition is highly-selective.

      However the optimizer is not able to use it and has to compute a cross join between t1 and t2 and then apply the WHERE.

      Another query uses UCASE with IN:

      WHERE  UCASE(key_col) IN ('const1','const2', ...)

      How to optimize this

      In general, it is not possible to use an index to make lookups based on


      as FOO, foo and FOo are not sorted together in case-sensitive collations.

      It seems that case-insensitive collations should have this property:

      For any a,b:   (UCASE(a)=UCASE(b))   <=>   (a=b)               (CI-UCASE-REMOVAL)

      Making a rewrite according to this will solve the issue.

      The bad news is that CI-UCASE-REMOVAL doesn't always hold. Some collations have exceptions to this rule. See examples below.

      The good news is that utf8mb3_general_ci and utf8mb4_general_ci do have this property.


      Exception #1: Czech collation

      See https://collation-charts.org/mysql60/mysql604.utf8_czech_ci.html, CH, Ch and ch are considered a single letter which sorts between H and I. But the pair of characters "cH" is not treated in this way. The effect of this is:

      CREATE OR REPLACE TABLE t2 (a VARCHAR(32) COLLATE utf8mb3_czech_ci);
      INSERT INTO t2 VALUES ('ch'),('CH'),('Ch'),('cH');
      SELECT t1.a, t2.a, t1.a=t2.a, UCASE(t1.a)=UCASE(t2.a)  FROM t2 t1, t2 t2 
      WHERE (t1.a=t2.a) <> (UCASE(t1.a)=UCASE(t2.a));

      | a    | a    | t1.a=t2.a | UCASE(t1.a)=UCASE(t2.a) |
      | cH   | ch   |         0 |                       1 |
      | cH   | CH   |         0 |                       1 |
      | cH   | Ch   |         0 |                       1 |
      | ch   | cH   |         0 |                       1 |
      | CH   | cH   |         0 |                       1 |
      | Ch   | cH   |         0 |                       1 |

      Note that UCASE(t1.a)=UCASE(t2.a) holds while t1.a=t2.a doesn't. If it was other way around, we could use t1.a=t2.a for row retrieval and then check the UCASE(...)=UCASE(...) equality. But alas, if we try to use t1.a=t2.a to read rows we may miss rows. This makes the rewrite completely unapplicable.

      Exception #2: Danish collation


      CREATE OR REPLACE TABLE t4 (a VARCHAR(32) COLLATE utf8mb3_danish_ci);
      INSERT INTO t4 VALUES ('aa'),('AA'),('Aa'),('aA');
      SELECT t1.a, t4.a, t1.a=t4.a, UCASE(t1.a)=UCASE(t4.a)  FROM t4 t1, t4 t4
      WHERE (t1.a=t4.a) <> (UCASE(t1.a)=UCASE(t4.a));

      | a    | a    | t1.a=t4.a | UCASE(t1.a)=UCASE(t4.a) |
      | aA   | aa   |         0 |                       1 |
      | aA   | AA   |         0 |                       1 |
      | aA   | Aa   |         0 |                       1 |
      | aa   | aA   |         0 |                       1 |
      | AA   | aA   |         0 |                       1 |
      | Aa   | aA   |         0 |                       1 |

      Exception #3: Turkish collation

      CREATE OR REPLACE TABLE t1 (a VARCHAR(32) COLLATE utf8mb3_uca1400_turkish_as_ci);
      INSERT INTO t1 VALUES ('I'),('i'),('İ'),('ı');
      SELECT t1.a, t2.a, UCASE(t1.a), UCASE(t2.a), t1.a=t2.a, UCASE(t1.a)=UCASE(t2.a)
      FROM t1 t1, t1 t2
      WHERE (t1.a=t2.a) <> (UCASE(t1.a)=UCASE(t2.a));

      | a    | a    | UCASE(t1.a) | UCASE(t2.a) | t1.a=t2.a | UCASE(t1.a)=UCASE(t2.a) |
      | İ    | i    | İ           | İ           |         0 |                       1 |
      | i    | İ    | İ           | İ           |         0 |                       1 |

      The same can be observed on utf8mb3_uca1400_as_ci collation.

      Further exceptions

      Collations *uca1400_*as* are likely to have violations to the rule as well.

      Doing the rewrite

      We can follow the example of MDEV-8320 with its datetime condition rewrites and create another rewrite.

      Introduce Item_func_eq::varchar_upper_cmp_transformer() and do the rewrite there.

      Checking the criteria

      • the collation $COLL that is used to do the comparison supports ucase removal
      • The left side has form UCASE(table.col)
        • (UPPER() is a synonym for UCASE, no need for separate check)
      • table.col is a "character-based" type and uses the same collation $COLL.

      if the above conditions are met, we can do the rewrite.

      Doing the rewrite

      • Create a new Item_func_eq(table.col, ... )
      • Call fix_fields() for it and return it from the transformer function.

      This seems to be more straightforward than trying to replace UPPER(col) with col. If we replace ourselves, we'll need to care about undoing the rewrite. Rewrites done by transformer will be rolled back automatically.

      Note that


      so we will not change the semantics of the statement.

      There is a problem with creating Item_func_in: it will copy and then call fix_fields() for the entire IN-list. Using Item_func_in::build_clone doesn't improve the situation much.


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              psergei Sergei Petrunia
              psergei Sergei Petrunia
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