The result for EXTRACT(DAY..) looks wrong. It should be -1.
The SQL standard says:
If <extract field> is a <primary datetime field>, then the result is the value of the datetime field identified by that <primary datetime field> and has the same sign as the <extract source>. NOTE 186 — If the value of the identified <primary datetime field> is zero or if <extract source> is not an <interval value expression>, then the sign is irrelevant.
The negative time value '-24:10:10.10' plays role of INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND in this example. The extract source is an <interval value expression>. So the sign is relevant and should be derived from the value.