You can query information_schema.INNODB_TABLESPACES_ENCRYPTION to determine which InnoDB tables are encrypted:
Aria tables can also be encrypted if aria_encrypt_tables is enabled:
However, there does not seem to be any information_schema table that shows which Aria tables are encrypted. Wouldn't it make sense to make this information available?
Currently, you have to use the very user-unfriendly method shown here: