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  1. MariaDB Server
  2. MDEV-6676

Optimistic parallel replication




      Parallel replication in 10.0 relies either on sufficient parallelism being
      available during master commit, or alternatively on user-annotated parallelism
      with GTID domain ids. These may not be sufficient to achive good parallelism
      on a slave.

      The original approach in parallel replication was to only run in parallel
      transactions that were known to be able to safely replicate in parallel, due
      to group-committing together on the master. However, it turned out that there
      were some corner cases where it could be not safe even in spite of this. So
      a general solution was implemented that allows to handle and recover from an
      attempt to do non-safe parallel replication, by detecting a deadlock in commit
      order and retrying the problem transaction.

      With this general solution, it actually becomes safe to attempt to replicate
      any transactions in parallel, as long as those transactions can be rolled
      back and re-tried (eg. InnoDB/XtraDB DML). This opens the way for
      speculatively replicating in parallel on the slave in an attempt to get more
      parallelism. We can simply queue transactions in parallel regardless of
      whether they have same commit id from the master. If there are no conflicts,
      then great, parallelism will be improved. If there is a conflict, the enforced
      commit order will cause it to be detected as a deadlock, and the later
      transaction will be rolled back and retried.

      To avoid excessive rollback and retry, and to avoid attempts to roll back
      non-transactional updates, we could have some simple heuristics about when to
      attempt the speculative parallel apply. For example:

      • Annotate transactions on the master (with a flag in the GTID event) that
        are pure InnoDB DML, and only attempt to run those in parallel
        speculatively on the slave. Or alternatively, detect this during
        open_tables(), and let events wait for prior transactions if they touch
        non-transactional table.
      • Annotate on the master transactions that ended up having row lock waits on
        other transactions, indicating a potential conflict. Such transactions
        might be likely to also conflict on the slave, so might be better to let
        wait for prior transactions, rather than try speculative parallel apply.
      • If the number of rows affected becomes large, pause the replicating large
        transaction and wait for prior transactions to complete first, to avoid
        having to do a large rollback (which is expensive in InnoDB).




            knielsen Kristian Nielsen
            knielsen Kristian Nielsen
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